Unbiased Stereology
Three Dimensional Measurement in Microscopy
C.V. Howard & M.G. Reed

This book is a simple and practical guide to making unbiased 3-D measurements of microstructure via the microscope. It is not full of complex mathematics and is of use to biologists, toxicologists, pathologists, geologists and materials scientists. The techniques presented, which are statistical in nature, are tried and  tested, and presented in a clear didactic style. Exercises, together with detailed worked answers are provided.

The second edition, published in 2005, had three new chapters covering single object stereology, 'Petrimetrics’, or the application of survey sampling techniques to in vitro experiments, and second order stereology for local measures of spatial organisation.

Unbiased stereology has been requested for nerve cell counts in neurotoxicology by the United States Food & Drug Administration, and is now being required by many journals as a condition of acceptance for research articles.

The book has been continuously in print since 1998 and has more than 1700 citations. We are planning a 20th Anniversary reprint of the second edition - to be ready before January 2018. 

CONTENTS (278 pages)
  1. Concepts
  2. Random Sampling and Random Geometry
  3. Estimation of Reference Volume using the Cavalieri method
  4. Estimation of component volume and Volume Fraction
  5. Number Estimation
  6. Estimation of total Surface area and surface density
  7. Length Estimation
  8. Stereological analysis of Layered Structures
  9. Particle sizing
  10. Statistics for stereologists
  11. Single Object Stereology
  12. Petrimetrics
  13. Second -Order stereology
Appendix A - Practical gadgets for Stereology
Appendix B - Set of Stereological grids
Appendix C - Answers for Exercises